PDFtk works on CentOS 7!

Installing PDFtk on CentOS/RHEL/Scientific Linux 7

In the transition to CentOS 7, the GNU compiler for the Java programming language libgcj was discontinued. This is partially due to it being dropped by the GCC suite. As it turns out, shared library linking of libgcj.so.10 from CentOS 6 is binary compatible with PDFtk. We use PDFtk in our office for collating documents that have been scanned, and it works great!

After searching online and finding lots of links with various levels of success and server admins having used PDFtk for over a decade, we decided to package it and provide it to the community.

Installation is simple, depending on your architecture:

x86_64

yum localinstall https://www.linuxglobal.com/static/blog/pdftk-2.02-1.el7.x86_64.rpm

i686

yum localinstall https://www.linuxglobal.com/static/blog/pdftk-2.02-1.el7.i686.rpm

After  Updating

If you are reading this article, then you probably just upgraded your system. Now would be a great time to consider security for your application and server infrastructure. There are many services that we offer including support, security, maintenance, monitoring, backups, and live SQL backup replication. We even offer a security hardened hosting environment!

Please let us know if you have any issues with these packages or if we may be of service!

Update: 2017-01-26

Some have asked for the .spec that we are using. Really are we are doing is repacking libgcj.so.10* which we pulled out of CentOS 6 libgcj-4.4.7-17.el6. PDFtk was downloaded as an RPM from their site unmodified except that we converted it to a tar and added libgcj. You may need to edit the spec to make it build on your system, but it works in our build environment: https://www.linuxglobal.com/static/blog/pdftk.spec

-Eric

Block Device Replication with rdiff

I’ve written a few articles on rdiff-backup, and if you need an increment history to go back in time, rdiff-backup is your tool. 

But what if you just want to replicate a large block device over the Internet? Well, then we turn to the utility that inspired rdiff-backup: rdiff

For our example, we wil assume you are using LVM to create device snapshots—but really, this could be any snapshot or SAN flash implementation. I’ve just written it for Linux’s LVM.

  • /dev/remote-vg0/source will be the device we are replicating from
  • /dev/local-vg0/dest will be the device we are replicating to
  • remotehost is the system that hosts /dev/remote-vg0/source
  • This script is being executed on the destination system.
# Define our source and destination
# (Note: spaces in these paths could break the script)
SOURCE=/dev/remote-vg0/source
DEST=/dev/local-vg0/dest
SSHUSER=root@remotehost

# Choose a size large enough for the remote write-activity during
# replication
SOURCE_SNAPSHOT_SIZE=4G

# Must be the same size as $DEST, because rdiff writes in sequential
# order (it thinks the destination is an empty file, so it re-writes
# everything.)
#
# See Feb 18, 2011 update notes below.  This can be much smaller now if you 
# use the patch below, since writes are avoided unless necessary.
#DEST_SNAPSHOT_SIZE=50G

# This is probably safe with the librsync patch discussed below
DEST_SNAPSHOT_SIZE=$SOURCE_SNAPSHOT_SIZE

# Enable compression
SSHOPTS='-C'

# 32k I/O buffers, and 16k blocksize.
RDIFF_OPT='-I 32768 -O 32768 -b 16384 -s'

SOURCE_NAME=`basename "$SOURCE"`
SOURCE_SNAP="`dirname $SOURCE`/$SOURCE_NAME-snap"
SOURCE_SNAP_NAME="$SOURCE_NAME-snap"

DEST_NAME=`basename "$DEST"`
DEST_SNAP="`dirname $DEST`/$DEST_NAME-snap"
DEST_SNAP_NAME="$DEST_NAME-snap"

# remove the previous snapshots, if any
ssh $SSHOPTS "$SSHUSER" "lvremove -f '$SOURCE_SNAP'"
lvremove -f "$DEST_SNAP"

# Snapshot the remote host:
ssh $SSHOPTS "$SSHUSER" "lvcreate -s -n '$SOURCE_SNAP_NAME' -L $SOURCE_SNAPSHOT_SIZE '$SOURCE'"

# Snapshot the local destination host:
lvcreate -s -n "$DEST_SNAP_NAME" -L $DEST_SNAPSHOT_SIZE "$DEST"

rdiff $RDIFF_OPT -- signature "$DEST_SNAP" - | \
  ssh $SSHOPTS "$SSHUSER" "rdiff $RDIFF_OPT -- delta - '$SOURCE_SNAP' -" | \
  rdiff $RDIFF_OPT -- patch "$DEST_SNAP" - "$DEST"

# Compare the volumes, if you like
ssh $SSHOPTS "$SSHUSER" "md5sum '$SOURCE_SNAP'"
md5sum $DEST

# cleanup, remove the snapshots.
ssh $SSHOPTS $SSHUSER "lvremove -f '$SOURCE_SNAP'"
lvremove -f "$DEST_SNAP"

This is a convenient single-pipe process for replication, and it uses the librsync rolling-checksum process, using minimal bandwidth on the network that ssh traverses.

Executing this script yields something like this on a 50GB volume; note that the md5sum’s match perfectly.

  Logical volume "source-snap" created
  Logical volume "dest-snap" created
rdiff: signature statistics: signature[3276800 blocks, 16384 bytes per block]
rdiff: loadsig statistics: signature[3276800 blocks, 16384 bytes per block]
rdiff: delta statistics: literal[27842 cmds, 805715968 bytes, 83492 cmdbytes] copy[1462034 cmds, 52881375232 bytes, 372798 false, 10746386 cmdbytes]
rdiff: patch statistics: literal[27842 cmds, 805715968 bytes, 83492 cmdbytes] copy[1462034 cmds, 52881375232 bytes, 0 false, 10746386 cmdbytes]
7fddc578cdbf5f4e30b7f815e72acebd  /dev/local-vg0/dest
7fddc578cdbf5f4e30b7f815e72acebd  /dev/remote-vg0/source-snap
  Logical volume "source-snap" successfully removed
  Logical volume "dest-snap" successfully removed

Since rdiff does not know the destination is a snapshot of the basis-file, it rewrites the whole thing. Indeed, it could simply seek instead of copy from the basis-file, but the stock rdiff tool does not support this. If I write a patch, it will get posted here—and if you write a patch, please let me know! (see update below!)

Until then, keep double the space free in your volume group that you need to run a snapshot and it should work great!

Update: Fri Feb 18 12:39:51 PST 2011 I just wrote patch for rdiff (within the librsync package) that updates in place, by patching the file-stream-sink code in buf.c. Basically, it reads before writing. If the data read in is the same that it would have written, it skips the write and advances the write pointer; otherwise, it writes as normal. Since this avoids writing to the device that had a snapshot except where necessary, much less snapshot-backing-store is required. This code passes all of the ‘make check’ tests that come with librsync, and I believe it to be stable. On my system, rdiff syncs are about 2x faster due to the much reduced write-overhead of the original implementation.

  • The patch is here
  • and the patched code, ready to compile, is here

-Eric

BlockFuse to the Rescue: rdiff-backup of LVM Snapshots and Block Devices

Over the years I have used rdiff-backup as an incremental backup solution. It works really well on many platforms, supports files >4GB, ACLs, and much much more.

Unfortunately, rdiff-backup does not support backing up block device content; instead, it will replicate the block device inode’s major/minor numbers on the destination system (doesn’t backup the internal content). If you are backing up all of your root filesystem (/), this is probably what you want. But, what if you’re backing up large virtual machine LVM snapshots?

Not finding a solution on the web, I wrote my own using the Linux FUSE filesystem.

BlockFuse takes two arguments:

	# ./block-fuse
	usage: ./block-fuse /dev/directory /mnt/point

For example:

	# # Take an LVM snapshot:
	# lvm -s /dev/vgBoot/asterisk -n _snap-asterisk -L 1G
	   ...
	# # Mount /dev/mapper as /mnt/block-devices:
	# ./block-fuse /dev/mapper /mnt/block-devices
	# ls -l /mnt/block-devices
	-r-------- 1 root root  10G 2010-12-21 16:07 vgBoot-_snap--asterisk
	-r-------- 1 root root 1.0G 2010-12-21 16:07 vgBoot-_snap--asterisk-cow
	   ...
	# # Perform your backup:
	# rdiff-backup --include '/mnt/block-devices/*_snap*' --exclude '*' \
		/mnt/block-devices \
		/mnt/backup/lvm-snapshots
	# #
	# ls -l /mnt/backup/lvm-snapshots/
	drwx------ 3 root root         4096 2010-12-21 16:19 rdiff-backup-data
	-r-------- 1 root root  10737418240 1969-12-31 16:00 vgBoot-_snap--asterisk
	-r-------- 1 root root   1073741824 1969-12-31 16:00 vgBoot-_snap--asterisk-cow

Thus, rdiff-backup is able to backup block-device content, including LVM snapshots using BlockFuse. BlockFuse is quite simple: it enumerates the content of the mount-source directory, and exports all block devices with non-zero size as a file with 0400 permissions, owned by your fuse user (probably root for this).

Notes:

  • BlockFuse does not support writing, so your data is read-only-safe. In a catastrophic recovery where you cannot restore a snapshot and must recover from rdiff- backup, just use rdiff-backup’s –restore-as-of argument, and ‘dd’ the recovered “file” back onto the original block device.
  • BlockFuse uses the mount-time as the modification time (st_mtime) for the mounted filesystem. This will force rdiff-backup to scan the block devices for changes. Therefore you must unmount and re-mount your BlockFuse filesystem after updating your snapshots. If you do not, rdiff-backup will skip the “files” because their modification timestamp had not changed since the last backup. (It would be easy to write a SIGHUP handler for this, so send me a patch if you do!)

Incidentally, I have this working in production, backing up snapshots as large as 350GB, so this is well tested. Still, this software is TO BE USED AT YOUR OWN RISK! Patches are welcome if you have a novell idea or change to add to BlockFuse.

Wed Dec 22 15:19:06 PST 2010: BlockFuse v0.01 initial release
Tue Dec 21 16:39:41 PST 2010: BlockFuse v0.02 now uses mmap’ed IO!
Tue Jan 14 10:53:54 PST 2014: BlockFuse v0.03 now follows symlinks and supports i386 architectures.

Download BlockFuse v0.03.

2014-01-14: Thank you for your patience waiting for the current version to be uploaded.  If someone would like to maintain BlockFuse and open a public git repo to maintain the package I would greatly appreciate it.

Cheers,

-Eric

Perl script-fu: Downloading UPS Invoices

UPS provides their shipping invoices and tracking history via their website, and you can even download .CSV and .XML files. Unfortunately, they do not have an easy way to automate this process. After scouring the web for something someone else has written, I decided to write my own: 

pull-ups-invoices.pl

Its a terse 100 line program, and your config options are at the top of the script. It depends on WWW::Mechanize, so make sure its installed. Oh, and be forewarned: this script does not validate UPS’s SSL certificate, so I hope you trust your link to UPS 😉

-Eric